The atom is the smallest unit of matter that has all the chemical properties of an element.
An atom is made up of three types of particles called sub-atomic particles which are electrons, protons, and neutrons.
electrons: It is a negatively charged sub-atomic particle. which is either be free or bind to the nucleus of an atom.
Electrons in atoms are present in spherical spheres of different radii which represent the energy levels.
The larger the spherical shell, more energy contained by the electron.
protons: It is a subatomic particle with a positive electric charge of +1e and its symbol is p or p+.
neutrons: It is also a subatomic particle with a neutral charge or no net electric charge and its symbol is n or n0
It is the largest particle which is made up of an atom.
Protons and electrons have equal and opposite charge, and in general, an atom has the same number of both proton and electron.
where the positively charged ion is known as cation and negatively charged ion is known as anion.
Examples of atoms
1. Hydrogen (H)
2. Calcium (Ca)
3. Iron (Fe)
4. Neon (Ne)
5. Deuterium (Isotope of hydrogen with one proton and one neutron)
these are some examples of the atom.
Atoms and Molecules
when two or more than two atoms bond together then they form molecules.
For example, O is a symbol for a single atom of the oxygen. On the other side, O2 is a symbol for a molecule of oxygen gas which contains two oxygen atoms, while O3 is a symbol for a molecule of ozone which has three oxygen atoms.
The atomic number is equal to the number of protons which are present in the nucleus of the atom. for example, Carbon atom contains 6 protons which means that its atomic number is also 6.
It is the sum of proton and neutron. for example, carbon contains 6 protons and 6 neutrons so its atomic mass is 12.
The atomic radius is the distance from the center of the nucleus to the outermost shell containing electrons.
Atoms in a mole
atoms in a mole are 6.022×1023 which is equal to Avogadro’s number.
Can atoms be created?
According to Dalton’s Atomic Theory, Atoms can neither be created nor be destroyed in a chemical reaction.
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