These electron pairs are generally known as shared pairs or bonding pairs.
the balance of attractive as well as repulsive forces between atoms when they share electrons is called covalent bonding.
Some examples of covalent bonds are carbon monoxide(CO), methane (CH4), water (H2O).
Here is a bond between the oxygen and both hydrogen in a water (H2O) compound.
Each of the covalent bonds consists of two electrons, one from hydrogen and one from oxygen and both atoms share their electrons.
single covalent bond: It is formed by just the sharing of a single electron pair between the two atoms.
it is denoted by a single short line.
double covalent bond: It is formed in between two atoms simply by the sharing of two-electron pairs.
it is denoted by a double short line.
triple covalent bond: It is formed by the sharing of three electron pairs between two atoms.
it is denoted by a triple short line.
polar covalent bond: It is formed between two different atoms.
For example in ammonia (NH3) covalent bond is formed between nitrogen and hydrogen atoms, it is polar in nature because nitrogen is a lot more electronegative as compared to a hydrogen atom.
So, the electron cloud is moved towards the nitrogen atom.
Because of this, a partial -ve charge appeared on the nitrogen atom and an equal +ve charge on the Hydrogen atom.
non-polar covalent bond: It is formed between two similar atoms.
For example, H2, Cl2 the difference of electronegativity is zero, therefore, both the atoms attract electron pair equally so no charge appears on any atom and the complete molecule becomes neutral.
How to identify a covalent bond?
It is a bond between 2 non-metals. So simply look in the periodic table and identify the compound is made up of 2 non-metals.
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